B R Ambedkar Biography Was born on April 14, 1891, and passing away on December 6, 1956, was a pivotal figure in Indian history. He was a distinguished lawyer, an insightful economist, and a formidable leader who had a significant role in the drafting of the Constitution of India. As a champion of social justice Ambedkar tirelessly worked to eradicate social discrimination against untouchables and was instrumental in leading efforts for the upliftment of marginalized communities in India.
In addition to his contributions to the Constitution, he also served as the Law and Justice Minister in the first cabinet of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Ambedkar’s later years were marked by a significant shift in his focus towards religion. Disheartened by the persistence of caste-based discrimination within Hinduism he led the Dalit Buddhist movement encouraging Dalits to convert to Buddhism as a means of escaping caste oppression. His legacy continues to inspire and influence social reform and civil rights movements across India and the world.
Dr B R Ambedkar Biography
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar educational journey was remarkable and ground breaking for his time. After completing his studies at Elphinstone College affiliated with the University of Bombay, he went on to pursue higher education abroad. His academic pursuits led him to Columbia University in New York, where he focused on economics, obtaining his doctorate in 1927. Prior to this, he had already achieved another doctorate in 1923 from the London School of Economics, distinguishing him as one of the few Indian students to earn doctorates from such prestigious institutions in the early 20th century.
Apart from his accomplishments in economics Ambedkar was also trained in law at Gray Inn in London, where he further honed his legal acumen. His professional life was multifaceted; he worked not only as an economist but also as a professor and lawyer. This diverse expertise contributed significantly to his later political career.
Dr B R Ambedkar Biography involvement in politics was deeply influenced by his commitment to fighting for the rights of Dalits, the marginalized communities in India. He was a key figure in shaping the political discourse around social justice and equality, and his efforts were instrumental in the formation of independent India. His conversion to Buddhism in 1956 was a landmark event, leading many Dalits to follow in his footsteps, seeking a path away from caste-based discrimination.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Full Name
Dr. B R Ambedkar full name is Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. He was also popularly known as Baba Saheb Ambedkar.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Birth Date
bhimrao ambedkar biography also known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was born on April 14, 1891, in Mhow in what is now Madhya Pradesh, India. He was a prominent jurist, economist, politician, and social reformer, renowned for his efforts in shaping the Constitution of India and advocating for the rights of the marginalized, especially the Dalits. His contributions to the legal, economic, and social frameworks of India have made him an iconic figure in Indian history.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Early Life
Dr. B R Ambedkar Biography born into a Dalit family in Mhow, Madhya Pradesh, faced severe caste discrimination throughout his early life. His father, Ramji Makoji Sakpal, was a British Indian Army officer, and his mother was Bhimabai Sakpal. Despite these challenges, Ambedkar excelled academically, becoming the only untouchable student at Elphinstone High School. He married Ramabai at the age of 15 and later pursued higher education, earning a degree from Bombay University in 1912. His academic journey continued with a scholarship to Columbia University, leading to a master’s degree in 1917 and a D.Sc in Economics from the University of London in 1923.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Education
- In 1908, B.R. Ambedkar completed his schooling at Elphinstone High School and went on to graduate from Bombay University in 1912, majoring in political studies and economics. Known for his intellectual prowess, Ambedkar impressed the Gaekwad of Baroda, Sahyaji Rao III, who awarded him a scholarship of 25 rupees per month. This financial support enabled him to pursue further studies abroad.
- Ambedkar utilized this scholarship to apply to Columbia University in New York, where he was accepted for his master’s degree in Economics. He completed this degree in 1915, presenting a thesis titled ‘Ancient Indian Commerce.’ In 1916, he embarked on another thesis, ‘The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution,’ and gained admission to the London School of Economics.
- During this period, Ambedkar also worked as a professor of political science at Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics. With the assistance of Governor Lord Sydenham, he furthered his academic pursuits in England. His dedication and scholarly efforts culminated in him earning a Ph.D. in Economics in 1927. That same year, he also received a Doctorate from the University of Columbia, marking significant milestones in his academic career.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Career
- In 1918, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar began his tenure as a professor at Mumbai’s Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics. Despite being popular among students, he faced discrimination from some fellow professors, who were reluctant to share a water jug with him.
- Ambedkar also practiced law, and in 1926, he notably defended three non-Brahmin individuals against accusations made by Brahmins. While working at the Bombay High Court, he actively worked towards educating and uplifting the untouchables. By 1927, he had started organizing rallies and marches to combat untouchability, particularly focusing on improving access to public drinking water.
- In 1930, Ambedkar led the Kalaram Temple movement in Nashik, attracting about 15,000 volunteers to a procession advocating for Dalit rights. In 1932, the British government’s introduction of the Communal Award, which proposed a separate electorate for the “Depressed Classes,” was met with opposition from Mahatma Gandhi. This led to the signing of the Poona Pact, which instead provided special seats for underprivileged communities in legislative bodies.
- In 1935, Ambedkar became the principal of Government Law College in Bombay and served on the governing council of Ramjas College, University of Delhi. He founded the Independent Labour Party in 1936 and participated in the 1937 election for the Central Legislative Assembly.
- Following the Muslim League’s 1940 resolution for the creation of Pakistan, Ambedkar published “Thoughts on Pakistan,” wherein he suggested Hindus should grant Muslims control over Pakistan.
- In 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, invited Ambedkar to serve as the country’s Minister of Law. Ambedkar’s most notable contribution during this time was as the chairman of the Constitution-drafting committee, playing a pivotal role in shaping the Constitution of India.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Achievements
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar significantly contributed to the establishment of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in 1935, and in 1955, he was a pioneering advocate for the division of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar to improve governance. He also proposed Sanskrit as the official language of the Indian union and participated in two ‘Lok Sabha’ elections, although he was not successful in either.
- His autobiography, ‘Waiting for a Visa,’ is recognized for its educational value and is used as a textbook at Columbia University. Notably, Ambedkar was the first Indian to earn a Ph.D. from an overseas institution and he was a vocal opponent of employment and constituency reservation.
- In 1916, Ambedkar served as the defense secretary for the princely state of Baroda. During this time, he faced significant challenges and discrimination due to his Dalit background, leading to his resignation. He then worked as a private tutor and accountant. Despite facing initial setbacks, including a failed consulting firm, he secured a teaching position at Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai.
- Ambedkar’s dedication to the upliftment of the untouchables led him to establish the journal “Mooknayak” and found the “Bahishkrit Hitakarni Sabha.” These initiatives focused on providing educational and social support to the backward classes, demonstrating his commitment to social justice and equality.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Marriage
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, a prominent figure in Indian history, experienced personal challenges alongside his professional achievements. After the passing of his first wife, Ramabai, in 1935 following a prolonged illness, Ambedkar’s own health began to deteriorate in the late 1940s. During this period, he completed the draft of India’s constitution but struggled with various health issues, including insomnia, leg pain, and the need for insulin and homeopathic treatments.
Seeking medical attention in Bombay, Ambedkar met Sharada Kabir. They married on April 15, 1948, at his home in New Delhi. This marriage was suggested by doctors who believed Ambedkar required a companion who was not only a good cook but also had medical knowledge to care for him. Sharada, who adopted the name Savita Ambedkar, dedicatedly looked after him for the remainder of his life.
Savita Ambedkar, affectionately known as ‘Mai,’ continued her life after Ambedkar’s demise. She passed away on May 29, 2003, at the age of 93 in Mumbai. Her role in Ambedkar’s life, especially during his challenging times, remains a significant part of his personal history.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Books
- “Administration and Finance of the East India Company”
- “The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India”
- “Federation versus Freedom”
- “Pakistan or the Partition of India / Thoughts on Pakistan”
- “Rande, Gandhi, and Jinnah”
- “What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables”
- “The Buddha and His Dhamma” (published posthumously in 1957)
- “Waiting for a Visa” (an autobiography)
Ambedkar also wrote on constitutional and political matters, such as:
- “On Franchise and Framing Constituencies”
- “Protection of the Interests of the Depressed Classes”
- “State of Education of the Depressed Classes in the Bombay Presidency”
- “Constitution of the Government of Bombay Presidency”
- “A Scheme of Political Safeguards for the Protection of the Depressed”
- “The Claims of the Depressed Classes for Special Representation”
- “Franchise and Tests of Untouchability”
- “The Cripps Proposals on Constitutional Advancement”
- “Grievances of the Scheduled Castes”
Dr. B R Ambedkar Death
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, a key figure in Indian history, struggled with diabetes from 1948 onwards. This condition, which impairs the body’s ability to use sugar effectively, significantly affected his health. In 1954, from June to October, Ambedkar was bedridden due to medication side effects and deteriorating eyesight. His health further declined in 1955.
Despite his health challenges, Ambedkar completed his final book, “The Buddha and His Dhamma.” Just three days after finishing this significant work, he passed away peacefully in his sleep on December 6, 1956, at his home in Delhi.
Following his death, a large Buddhist cremation ceremony was held at Dadar Chowpatty beach in Mumbai on December 7. The event drew an immense crowd, with half a million people attending to pay their respects and mourn his loss. On December 16, 1956, a conversion program was organized at the same location as the cremation. This event offered an opportunity for those who attended the cremation to convert to Buddhism, reflecting Ambedkar’s profound influence and legacy in promoting and embracing Buddhist principles.